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Weather & Environmental Essentials

Global weather and environmental metrics including temperature, precipitation, carbon intensity of electricity, and FEMA disaster declarations


This product serves as a central source of global weather and environmental metrics. A single, unified schema joins together data across numerous sources that track global environmental factors.
Example topics covered:
  • Daily weather events (e.g. temperature, precipitation) across 180 countries
  • Carbon intensity of electricity by country
  • Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) sales, deliveries, and prices
  • Buyers and suppliers in the CDR market
  • FEMA disaster declarations
  • National Flood Insurance Program policies & claims
Weather data is sourced from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Carbon intensity data is sourced from Our World in Data and CDR data is sourced from Disaster declaration and flood insurance data is sourced from FEMA.

Key attributes

Geographic Coverage
Entity Level
Company, Country, Weather Station, FEMA Regions, Disaster Declarations, Mission Assignments, NFIP Policies, NFIP Claims
Time Granularity
Varies, depending on source
Update Frequency
Depending on source, see table below
January 1, 2000 (weather)
December 31, 2000 (carbon) May 2, 1953 (FEMA disaster) 
February 1, 2012 (FEMA mission assignment) Since January 1, 1978 (FEMA flood insurance claim) Since January 1, 2009 (FEMA flood insurance policy)


All Cybersyn products follow the EAV (entity, attributes, value) model with a unified schema. Entities are tangible objects (e.g. geography, company). Entities may have characteristics (i.e. descriptors of the entity) in an index table and values (i.e. statistics, measure) in a timeseries table. Data is joinable across all Cybersyn products that have a GEO_ID. Refer to Cybersyn Concepts for more details.
Our World in Data publishes carbon intensity of electricity in grams CO2e per kWh by country by year from 2000. This data measures how much CO2 it takes to produce a given amount of electricity. Determine which countries have improved their carbon footprint over time and compare which countries are the most efficient as it relates to carbon emissions from electric use. is the largest open data platform dedicated to Carbon dioxide removal (CDR) monitoring — tracking 100+ year permanence carbon removal purchases & deliveries. CDR is the process of removing CO2 from the atmosphere and durably storing it to create negative emissions. This dataset shows activity in the marketplace for carbon credits including CDR sales, deliveries, and prices. The data shows which buyers and suppliers are most active in the CDR market as well as which types of CDRs are gaining and losing share. Note that all deals have CO2 tonnage associated with them, but only a subset of deals have dollar sales and price.
NOAA's National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) publishes daily weather events (e.g. temperature, precipitation, snowfall) from over 100,000 stations across 180 countries in their Global Historical Climatology Network daily (GHCNd) database. Any recorded weather observation that does not pass NOAA’s data quality checks is filtered out.
The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provides data on federally-declared disasters (e.g. hurricanes, droughts, terrorist attacks, release of toxic substances) in the United States, disaster recovery public programs, and policies and claims from the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) an insurance program managed by FEMA that provides flood insurance to the public through a network of 50+ insurance companies. Disaster declaration details include name, type, date, public assistance funding, impacted geographies, and work orders issued by FEMA to other government agencies for emergency response support. Flood policies and claims from the NFIP include features of the covered property, flood event, cost of damage, insurance payouts, building and contents insurance coverage, and policy deductibles, rates and duration.
We will continue to expand coverage. If there are specific metrics you wish to pull, contact us at [email protected].

Data Dictionary

Data Sources & Release Frequency

As with all Public Domain datasets, Cybersyn aims to release data on Snowflake Marketplace as soon as the underlying source releases new data. We check periodically for changes to the underlying source and, upon detecting a change, propagate the data to Snowflake Marketplace immediately. See our release process for more details.
Tables Names
Source Schedule
CREDIT_PURCHASE_ATTRIBUTES CARBON_CREDIT_PURCHASE_TIMESERIES pulls data from public and private sources; schedules vary based on underlying source
Daily - Disaster and Mission Assignment Monthly - NFIP Ad hoc - Region Index
Data Commons is an aggregator of government data sources. Release calendars vary by underlying source.
The US Census Bureau publishes datasets about the US people and it’s economy, release schedules vary by dataset.

Notes & Methodology

CDR aggregations

For carbon dioxide removal (CDR) purchases, the transaction-level data is aggregated by the purchaser, supplier, and CDR type. This breakdown allows users to follow along with key buyers and sellers in the CDR market as well as track which methods of CDR are seeing the most traction.

Weather station data variance

Roughly half of weather stations only report precipitation. Both record length and period of record vary by station. Data lag time varies depending on the station NOAA pulls data from but it is most frequently one to two days.

NOAA data quality checks

Any recorded weather observation that does not pass NOAA’s data quality checks is filtered out.

Examples & Sample Queries

Volume of insurance policy claims in a specific region
Evaluate the trend of flood-related insurance claims in New York over the last 10 years.
YEAR(claims.date_of_loss) AS year_of_loss,
SUM(claims.building_damage_amount) AS total_building_damage_amount,
SUM(claims.contents_damage_amount) AS total_contents_damage_amount
FROM cybersyn.fema_national_flood_insurance_program_claim_index claims
LEFT JOIN cybersyn.geography_index geo
ON claims.state_geo_id = geo.geo_id
WHERE geo.geo_name = 'New York'
AND claims.nfip_community_name = 'City Of New York'
AND year_of_loss >= YEAR(DATEADD(YEAR, -10, CURRENT_DATE()))
GROUP BY year_of_loss, claims.nfip_community_name
ORDER BY year_of_loss, claims.nfip_community_name;
Daily precipitation trends in a particular region
Timeseries of average precipitation levels in a specific state.
AVG(ts.value) AS avg_value
FROM cybersyn.noaa_weather_metrics_timeseries AS ts
JOIN cybersyn.noaa_weather_station_index AS idx
ON (ts.noaa_weather_station_id = idx.noaa_weather_station_id)
idx.state_name = 'Florida'
AND ts.variable = 'precipitation'
Prevalence of severe weather in a particular region
Determine how many tornados, waterspouts, or funnel clouds were recorded in Florida each year since 2010.
YEAR( AS year,
COUNT(DISTINCT AS count_severe_weather_days
FROM cybersyn.noaa_weather_metrics_timeseries AS ts
JOIN cybersyn.noaa_weather_station_index AS idx
ON (ts.noaa_weather_station_id = idx.noaa_weather_station_id)
ts.variable_name = 'Weather Type: Tornado, Waterspout, or Funnel Cloud'
AND idx.state_name = 'Florida'
AND ts.value = 1
AND >= '2010-01-01'
ORDER BY year;
Carbon intensity of electricity over time
Benchmark carbon intensity/kWh for the US and UK against that of the European Union.
SELECT geo.geo_name,
FROM cybersyn.carbon_intensity_timeseries AS ts
JOIN cybersyn.geography_index AS geo
ON (geo.geo_id = ts.geo_id)
WHERE ts.variable_name = 'Carbon intensity of electricity per kilowatt-hour'
AND geo.geo_name IN ('United States', 'United Kingdom', 'European Union')
Total CDR tons purchased by company
Determine which companies have purchased the most CO2 measured by tons.
SELECT att.entity,
SUM(ts.value) AS total_value
FROM cybersyn.carbon_credit_purchase_timeseries AS ts
JOIN cybersyn.carbon_credit_purchase_attributes AS att
ON (att.variable = ts.variable)
WHERE att.grouping_type = 'Purchaser'
AND att.measure_type = 'tons_total'
GROUP BY att.entity, att.variable_name
ORDER BY total_value DESC;
Sale of CDR by types
Analyze how $ sales of biochar and DAC stack up over time to determine which is gaining/losing share.
SELECT att.entity,
FROM cybersyn.carbon_credit_purchase_timeseries AS ts
JOIN cybersyn.carbon_credit_purchase_attributes AS att
ON (att.variable = ts.variable)
WHERE att.grouping_type = 'CDR Type'
AND att.measure_type = 'dollars_total'
AND att.entity IN ('Biochar', 'Dac')
ORDER BY att.entity,;

Releases & Changelog

11/15/23 - Added 6 tables covering disaster declaration and National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) insurance data from FEMA
Added Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) data on federally-declared disasters in the United States, disaster recovery public programs, and the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) insurance policies and claims. Six new tables were included in the release:
  • FEMA_DISASTER_DECLARATION_INDEX - Details for each federally-declared disaster (e.g. name, type, date, public assistance funding amounts). Table is unique by DISASTER_ID.
  • FEMA_DISASTER_DECLARATION_AREAS_INDEX - Geographic entities (e.g. counties, cities) impacted by each federally-declared disaster. A disaster declaration can include multiple geographic locations.
  • FEMA_MISSION_ASSIGNMENT_INDEX - Work orders issued by FEMA since 2012 to other government agencies, supporting emergency response activation across the US (e.g. requesting transportation support from the US Department of Transportation during a hurricane).
  • FEMA_NATIONAL_FLOOD_INSURANCE_PROGRAM_CLAIM_INDEX - Details on National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) claims including features of the insured property, information on the flood event precipitating the claim, the cost of the damage, and subsequent insurance payout amounts.
  • FEMA_NATIONAL_FLOOD_INSURANCE_PROGRAM_POLICY_INDEX - Details on National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) policies including features of the insured property, building and contents insurance coverage, deductibles, rates, and policy durations.
  • FEMA_REGION_INDEX - Human readable names and details for each FEMA Region
9/15/23 - Added daily weather data from 80K+ weather stations across 180 countries; updated product name
New tables added:
  • NOAA_WEATHER_STATION_INDEX contains metadata on the weather stations from the Global Historical Climatology Network daily (GHCNd) database, including mappings to Cybersyn’s GEO_ID at the country-, state- and zip-level (where applicable).
  • NOAA_WEATHER_METRICS_ATTRIBUTES includes the daily weather variables tracked globally and their measurement details.
  • NOAA_WEATHER_METRICS_TIMESERIES provides the details of the daily global weather variables recorded at each weather station.
Updated product name from "Emissions & Environment Essentials" to "Weather & Environmental Essentials"


The data in this dataset is sourced here. Links to provider license, terms and disclaimers are provided where appropriate:
Our World in Data: Disclaimer Disclaimer
Data Commons: License
Cybersyn is not endorsed or affiliated with any of these providers. Contact [email protected] for questions.Contact [email protected] for questions.
Last modified 11d ago